ASTM A36 Steel Properties, Modulus of Elasticity, Yield Strength, Material Density, Hardness & Equivalent

ASTM A36 steel A36 material mild carbon steel

ASTM A36 Steel

ASTM A36 steel is one of the most widely used carbon structural steels, although the carbon content of A36 material is maximum 0.29%, it is considered to be the mild steel (content of carbon ≤ 0.25%).

A36 mild steel is often compared to SAE AISI 1018, A36 carbon steel is commonly hot rolled, while 1018 steel is commonly cold rolled.

Notes: There are two versions that define low carbon steel, one with a carbon content between 0.04% (0.05%) and 0.25% and the other with between 0.04% (0.05%) and 0.29%.

A36 Material Applications

ASTM A36 structural steel has good weldability, it is usually hot rolled into rectangle steel, square steel, round steel, steel plate, and is also commonly made into all kinds of steel sections such as H beam, I beam, U channel, steel angle, steel tube, etc.

ASTM A36 Specification & Datasheet

The following tables show material ASTM A36 specification and datasheet including chemical composition, mechanical properties and equivalent grade.

Chemical Composition

The following specification gives A36 carbon steel chemical composition in different product froms.

A36 Steel Chemical Composition (%, ≤) for Shapes
SteelCSiMnPSCu
A360.260.40no requirement0.040.050.20
A36 Material Chemical Composition (%, ≤), for Plates, Width > 380 mm (15 in.)
SteelCSiMnPSCuThickness (d), mm (in.)
A360.250.40no requirement0.030.030.20d ≤20 (0.75)
0.250.400.80-1.200.030.030.2020<d≤40 (0.75<d≤ 1.5)
0.260.15-0.400.80-1.200.030.030.2040<d≤65 (1.5<d≤2.5)
0.270.15-0.400.85-1.200.030.030.2065<d≤100 (2.5<d≤ 4)
0.290.15-0.400.85-1.200.030.030.20> 100 (4)
A36 Material Chemical Composition (%, ≤), for Plates & Bars, Width ≤ 380 mm (15 in.)
SteelCSiMnPSCuThickness (d), mm (in.)
A360.260.40no requirement0.040.050.20d ≤ 20 (0.75)
0.270.400.60-0.900.040.050.2020< d≤ 40 (0.75< d≤ 1.5)
0.280.400.60-0.900.040.050.2040< d≤ 100 (1.5< d≤ 4)
0.290.400.60-0.900.040.050.20> 100 (4)

ASTM A36 Steel Properties

The following lists give ASTM A36 steel properties such as physical and mechanical properties.

A36 Mild Steel Mechanical Properties

The lists below summarizes steel grade A36 mechanical properties such as modulus of elasticity (Young’s modulus), shear modulus, ultimate tensile strength, yield strength, Brinell hardness, etc.

  • Ultimate tensile strength: 400-550 MPa;
  • Yield strength: ≥ 250 MPa (Steel plates thickness > 200mm)
  • Elongation:≥ 20% (steel plates and bars in 200mm thickness); ≥ 23% (50mm)
  • Brinell hardness: 119-162 HBW (based on the conversion from tensile strength)
  • Modulus of elasticity (Young’s modulus): 200 GPa (29×103 ksi)
  • Shear modulus: 79.3 GPa (11.5×103 ksi)

Physical Properties

A36 material physical properties are given in the lists below:

  • Density: 7.85 g/cm3 (0.284 lb/in3)
  • Melting point: 1,425-1,538 °C (2,600-2,800 °F)
  • Poissons ratio: 0.26

ASTM A36 Steel Equivalent Grade

ASTM A36 steel equivalent to ISO, European EN (German DIN, British BSI, French NF…), Japanese JIS and Chinese GB standard. (For reference)

US ASTM A36 vs European S235, Chinese Q235, Japanese SS440 and Indian E250 Steel.

ASTM A36 equivalent grade
USEuropeanGermanyJapanChinaIndiaISO
StandardGradeStandardGrade (Steel number)StandardGradeStandardGradeStandardGradeStandardGradeStandardGrade
ASTM A36A36 steelEN 10025-2;
EN 10025: 1993
S235; S235JRG2DIN 17100RSt 37-2, St 37-2JIS G3101; JIS G3106SS440; SM400AGB/T 700Q235IS 2062E250ISO 630-2S235 (S235B, S235C)

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